Zonulin is a human protein similar to the Zonula-occludens-toxin from Vibrio cholera, which is involved in the regulation of intercellular contacts in the intestinal wall.
Zonulin became an important marker for an increasing permeability of the intestines. It´s performing outstanding services with diagnosis as well as in therapeutic process of the leaky-gut-syndrome and with associated diseases.
Tumor necrosis factor (short: TNF-α) is a multifunctionary signaling substance (cytokine) of the immune system, which is involved with local and systemic inflammation.
TNF α is dominantly released from macrophages. Its´ most important function is to control the activity of different immune cells. TNF α may encourage the cell death (apoptosis), cell proliferation, cell differentiation and release of other cytokines. It causes fever and is involved in the development from cachexia with certain diseases. Furthermore, it has impact to the fat metabolism, the coagulation, the insulin resistance and the endothelial function.
Interleukin-6 (short: IL-6), B-cell-stimulating factor, B-cell-differentiation-factor hepatocytes, hepatocytes-stimulation factor, corresponds to the interleukins/cytokines, which are regulating the inflammatory reactions to the organism.
IL-6 comes along through its´ form of complex regulation and function in the “orchestra” of the other cytokines and cells. IL-6 has a key position in transition of mechanisms of congenital immunity and in mechanisms of the acquired immunity within the inflammatory process. IL-6 belongs to the cytokine family which devides the receptor subunits glykoprotein gp 130.
The interleukin-2-receptor is a heterotrimeric transmembrane protein which appears on the surface of lymphatic cells. The cytokine Interleukin-2 binds to the receptor and activates it.
Through controls of regulatory T-cells (TReg) the α-chain is involved in the regulation of immunotolerance. The concentration of the soluble Interleukin-2-receptor α (sIL-2Rα) in serum has chemical value for the evaluation of sarcoidosis activity, rejection from transplants, as well as with autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the global inflammation parameters like the C-reactive protein (CRP) or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate it allows a statement about the activation of the T-lymphocytes.
Biotin, also named Vitamin B7 or Vitamin H, is a water-soluble vitamin from the B-complex.
It plays a significant role in the prosthetic group of enzymes in the metabolism, but it is also important in the nucleus for the epigenetic regulation of the gene function. Furthermore, Biotin has an impact on the growth and preservation from blood cells, sebaceous glands, skin, hair and nails.