About Viruses (EBV, CMV, HSV, HHV6, HHV8, Coxsackie)

Now offering the new HSV 1/2 EliSpot

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1/2 infections are associated with CFS, Alzheimer´s disease and immune-suppression by bacteria like Borrelia burgdorferi.
The new HSV 1/2-EliSpot together with the HSV 1/2-IgG/IgA/IgM-antibodies complement each other in the diagnosis of HSV 1/2-infections.

About Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)

Epstein Barr Virus (obligate intracellular), double stranded DNA virus, one of the Herpes viruses, responsible for “Mononucleosis”.

Available Tests for EBV

Antibodies

EBV-IgM VCA (viral capsid antigen), -IgG VCA,
anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen)-antibodies
(Serum tube)

EliSpot

EBV-EliSpot:
EBV lytic antigen + EBV latent antigen
(ACD/CPDA tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 4 (HHV-4) (obligate intracellular)

Vector / Transmission:

Direct contact with saliva: “Kissing disease”, saliva, drinking from the same glass, toothbrush, blood, sex, blood-transfusion, organ transplantation.
50 % of all five-year-old children and 90-95 % of the adults in the USA are seropositive.

Symptoms (4-8 weeks incubation period):

Infectious Mononucleosis (glandular fever), malaise, anorexia, chills, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, splenomegaly, hepatitis, peripheral atypical lymphocytosis

Associations:

Chronic Fatique Sydrome (CFS), autoimmune diseases (dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythoematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren´s syndrome), Multiple Scleroris, cancer (Hodgkin´s lymphoma, Burkitt´s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma), conditions associated with HIV (hairy leukoplakia, central nervous system lyhmphomas)

Risk factors:

Immune suppression (children, elder people), young adults.

About Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Virus: Cytomegalovirus (obligate intracellular), double-stranded DNA virus, one of the Herpes viruses.

Available Tests for CMV

Antibodies

CMV-IgM- and -IgG-antibodies
(Serum tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 5 (HHV-5) (intracellular)

Vector / Transmission:

Airborne transmission, smear (cervicitis), tissue transplants, congenital (60-90% of US adults are seropositive), body fluids (urine, saliva, breast milk, sexual transmission/semen), organ transplantation, blood transfusion.

Symptoms:

Fatigue, fever, flu-like symptoms, lymphadenitis (swollen cervical lymph nodes), sore throat, splenomegaly, retinitis, esophagitis, hepatitis, ileocolitis, congenital abnormalities and neurological deficits.

Associations:

Chronic Fatique Sydrome (CFS), scleroderma, Meniere´s disease, lichen planus, pulmonary fibrosis, aphtous stomatitis

Risk factors:

immune suppression (elder people)

About Herpes simplex Virus (HSV)

Herpes Simplex Virus (human herpesvirus HHV1/2) (always intercellular), double-stranded DNA virus, one of the herpes viruses.

Available Tests for HSV

Antibodies

Herpes simplex 1 and Herpes simplex 2 antibodies
(Serum tube)

EliSpot

HSV 1/2 EliSpot
(ACD/CPDA tube)

Virus:

Herpes simplex Virus 1 = Human Herpes Virus 1 (HHV-1)
Herpes simplex Virus 2 = Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2) (intracellular).

Vector / Transmission:

HSV 1 by an infected skin-area (respiratory tract, eyes or mouth), HSV 2 by sexual contact or during childbirth for infants

Symptoms:

Watery blisters on the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, genitals, anus, flu-like symptoms (fever, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, problems urinating, herpes keratitis (pain, light sensitivity, discharge: sexual tract/mouth area).

Associations:

Multiple Sclerosis (neurovirulent), Alzheimer´s disease (HSV1), loss of vision, encephalitis (aphasia), latent infection; reactivation by organ transplantation or HIV: encephalitis, pneumonitis, bone marrow suppression.

Risk factors:

immune suppression (children, elder people)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV)

Available Tests for VZV

Antibodies

VZV IgG-/IgA-/IgM-antibodies
(Serum tube)

EliSpot

VZV EliSpot
(ACD/CPDA tube)

About Coxsackievirus

Coxsackievirus (obligate intracellular), belongs to Picornaviridae/enterovirus family, is a single-stranded RNA virus divided into group A and group B.

Available Tests for Coxsackievirus

Antibodies

Coxsackievirus-IgA- and IgG-antibodies
(Serum tube)

Virus:

Coxsackievirus A and B (Enterovirus).
Coxsackievirus (obligate intracellular), belongs to Picornaviridae/ enterovirus family, is a single-stranded RNA virus divided into group A and group B.

Vector / Transmission:

Fecal-oral contamination, droplets, body fluids, utensils, toys, diaper-changing table.

Symptoms:

Coxsackievirus A:
Herpangina, AHC (acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, HFM (hand-foot-and-mouth disease);
Coxsackievirus B:
Myocarditis, pericarditis, pleurodynia, hepatitis;
Coxsackievirus A and B:
Fever, rashes, sore throat, diahorrea, cough, fatigue, conjunctivitis, loss of appetite, headache, night sweats, aseptic meningitis.

Associations:

Coxsackievirus A:
pericarditis progressing to heart failure, conjunctivitis, respiratory disease
Coxsackievirus B:
pericarditis progressing to heart failure, pleurodynia for one week (acute chest or abdominal pain with fever and headache, myalgia, joint pain), viral meningits, Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM)

Risk factors:

Immune suppression.

About HHV6

Human Herpes Virus 6 (obligate intracellular), double-stranded DNA virus, one of the Herpes viruses.

Available Tests for HHV6

Antibodies

HHV-6-antibodies
(Serum tube)

PCR

HHV-6 DNA-PCR
(EDTA tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6)

Vector / Transmission:

Saliva: shedding of viral particles into saliva (prevalance of HHV-6 between 3 and 90% in saliva), latency in salivary glands, haematopoetic (blood-building) system.

Symptoms:

Exanthema subitum (Roseola infantum, sixth disease) with high temperature followed by a rash.

Associations:

Co-factor in Chronic fatique syndrome (CFS), Multiple Sclerosis (neurovirulent), Hashimoto´s thyroiditis, cancer (Kaposi´s sarkoma), temporal lobe epilepsy, optic neuritis, hepatic dysfunction/failure, fibromyalgia, AIDS, cancer temporal lobe epilepsy, reactivation by organ transplantation: encephalitis, pneumonitis, bone marrow suppression.

Risk factors:

immune suppression

About HHV8

Available Tests for HHV8

Antibodies

HHV-8-antibodies
(Serum tube)

PCR

HHV-8 DNA-PCR
(EDTA tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8)

Vector / Transmission:

shedding of viral particles into saliva

Symptoms:

fever, maculopapular rash

Associations:

cancer (Kaposi´s sarkoma)

Risk factors:

immune suppression