About Viruses (EBV, CMV, HSV, HHV6, HHV8, Coxsackie)

Now offering the new HSV 1/2 EliSpot

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1/2 infections are associated with CFS, Alzheimer´s disease and immune-suppression by bacteria like Borrelia burgdorferi.
The new HSV 1/2-EliSpot together with the HSV 1/2-IgG/IgA/IgM-antibodies complement each other in the diagnosis of HSV 1/2-infections.

About Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)

Epstein Barr Virus (obligate intracellular), double stranded DNA virus, one of the Herpes viruses, responsible for “Mononucleosis”.

Available Tests for EBV

EliSpot

EBV-EliSpot:
EBV lytic antigen + EBV latent antigen
(2x ACD/CPDA tube)

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

EBV-IgM VCA (viral capsid antigen), -IgG VCA,
anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen)-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 4 (HHV-4) (obligate intracellular)

Vector / Transmission:

Direct contact with saliva: “Kissing disease”, saliva, drinking from the same glass, toothbrush, blood, sex, blood-transfusion, organ transplantation.
50 % of all five-year-old children and 90-95 % of the adults in the USA are seropositive.

Symptoms (4-8 weeks incubation period):

Infectious Mononucleosis (glandular fever), malaise, anorexia, chills, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, splenomegaly, hepatitis, peripheral atypical lymphocytosis

Associations:

Chronic Fatique Sydrome (CFS), autoimmune diseases (dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythoematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren´s syndrome), Multiple Scleroris, cancer (Hodgkin´s lymphoma, Burkitt´s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma), conditions associated with HIV (hairy leukoplakia, central nervous system lyhmphomas)

Risk factors:

Immune suppression (children, elder people), young adults.

About Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Virus: Cytomegalovirus (obligate intracellular), double-stranded DNA virus, one of the Herpes viruses.

Available Tests for CMV

EliSpot

CMV Elispot
(2x ACD/CPDA tube)

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

CMV-IgM- and -IgG-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 5 (HHV-5) (intracellular)

Vector / Transmission:

Airborne transmission, smear (cervicitis), tissue transplants, congenital (60-90% of US adults are seropositive), body fluids (urine, saliva, breast milk, sexual transmission/semen), organ transplantation, blood transfusion.

Symptoms:

Fatigue, fever, flu-like symptoms, lymphadenitis (swollen cervical lymph nodes), sore throat, splenomegaly, retinitis, esophagitis, hepatitis, ileocolitis, congenital abnormalities and neurological deficits.

Associations:

Chronic Fatique Sydrome (CFS), scleroderma, Meniere´s disease, lichen planus, pulmonary fibrosis, aphtous stomatitis

Risk factors:

immune suppression (elder people)

About Herpes simplex Virus (HSV)

Herpes Simplex Virus (human herpesvirus HHV1/2) (always intercellular), double-stranded DNA virus, one of the herpes viruses.

Available Tests for HSV 1/2

EliSpot

HSV 1/2 EliSpot
(2x ACD/CPDA tube)

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

Herpes simplex 1 and Herpes simplex 2 antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Virus:

Herpes simplex Virus 1 = Human Herpes Virus 1 (HHV-1)
Herpes simplex Virus 2 = Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2) (intracellular).

Vector / Transmission:

HSV 1 by an infected skin-area (respiratory tract, eyes or mouth), HSV 2 by sexual contact or during childbirth for infants

Symptoms:

Watery blisters on the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, genitals, anus, flu-like symptoms (fever, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, problems urinating, herpes keratitis (pain, light sensitivity, discharge: sexual tract/mouth area).

Associations:

Multiple Sclerosis (neurovirulent), Alzheimer´s disease (HSV1), loss of vision, encephalitis (aphasia), latent infection; reactivation by organ transplantation or HIV: encephalitis, pneumonitis, bone marrow suppression.

Risk factors:

immune suppression (children, elder people)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV)

Available Tests for VZV

EliSpot

VZV EliSpot
(2x ACD/CPDA tube)

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

VZV IgG-/IgA-/IgM-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

About Coxsackievirus

Coxsackievirus (obligate intracellular), belongs to Picornaviridae/enterovirus family, is a single-stranded RNA virus divided into group A and group B.

Available Tests for Coxsackievirus

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

Coxsackievirus-IgA- and IgG-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Virus:

Coxsackievirus A and B (Enterovirus).
Coxsackievirus (obligate intracellular), belongs to Picornaviridae/ enterovirus family, is a single-stranded RNA virus divided into group A and group B.

Vector / Transmission:

Fecal-oral contamination, droplets, body fluids, utensils, toys, diaper-changing table.

Symptoms:

Coxsackievirus A:
Herpangina, AHC (acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, HFM (hand-foot-and-mouth disease);
Coxsackievirus B:
Myocarditis, pericarditis, pleurodynia, hepatitis;
Coxsackievirus A and B:
Fever, rashes, sore throat, diahorrea, cough, fatigue, conjunctivitis, loss of appetite, headache, night sweats, aseptic meningitis.

Associations:

Coxsackievirus A:
pericarditis progressing to heart failure, conjunctivitis, respiratory disease
Coxsackievirus B:
pericarditis progressing to heart failure, pleurodynia for one week (acute chest or abdominal pain with fever and headache, myalgia, joint pain), viral meningits, Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM)

Risk factors:

Immune suppression.

About HHV6

Human Herpes Virus 6 (obligate intracellular), double-stranded DNA virus, one of the Herpes viruses.

Available Tests for HHV6

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

HHV-6-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

PCR

HHV-6 DNA-PCR
(2x EDTA tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6)

Vector / Transmission:

Saliva: shedding of viral particles into saliva (prevalance of HHV-6 between 3 and 90% in saliva), latency in salivary glands, haematopoetic (blood-building) system.

Symptoms:

Exanthema subitum (Roseola infantum, sixth disease) with high temperature followed by a rash.

Associations:

Co-factor in Chronic fatique syndrome (CFS), Multiple Sclerosis (neurovirulent), Hashimoto´s thyroiditis, cancer (Kaposi´s sarkoma), temporal lobe epilepsy, optic neuritis, hepatic dysfunction/failure, fibromyalgia, AIDS, cancer temporal lobe epilepsy, reactivation by organ transplantation: encephalitis, pneumonitis, bone marrow suppression.

Risk factors:

immune suppression

About HHV8

Available Tests for HHV8

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

HHV-8-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

PCR

HHV-8 DNA-PCR
(2x EDTA tube)

Virus:

Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8)

Vector / Transmission:

shedding of viral particles into saliva

Symptoms:

fever, maculopapular rash

Associations:

cancer (Kaposi´s sarkoma)

Risk factors:

immune suppression

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)

The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a systemic infection caused by human-pathogenic TBE-virus. The TBE-virus gets with the tick bite directly through the salivary gland of the tick into the skin of its' victim.

Subsequently from there to the nearby lymph nodes and from there in other organs like e.g. connective tissue, musculosceletal, myocardium, also in monocytes and phagocytes, where the virus multiplies extremely. In the second viraemic stage the TBE-virus gets into the central nervous system and can reach the brain. With a direct or indirect proof of the TBE-virus, as far as it points to an infection, in Germany exists reporting obligation at the health authorities.

Available Tests for TBE

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

TBE IgG-/IgM-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Tick Test

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)-DNA-PCR
(out of the tick)

Enterovirus

Enteroviruses belong to the family of picorna viruses. They consist of 23 subspecies of Coxsackie-A-viruses, 6 Coxsackie-B-viruses and 31 Echo- and and other Enteroviruses.

Humans are the only virus reservoir. The Enteroviruses are causing feverish diseases of the respiratory organs and the gastro intestinal tract but also encephalitis, lymphocytic meningitis, fatique, myalgia, pericarditis and myocarditis, hepatitis, IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) as well as Herpangina, Hand-Foot-and-Mouth disease (HFM).

Available Tests for Enterovirus

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

Enterovirus IgG-/IgM-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Parvovirus B19

Parvovirus B19 is characterized by a high stability towards environmental factors and detergents. The virus attacks a receptor on the erythrocytes, the globoside blood group-p-antigen.

The Parvovirus B19 infection (Fifth Disease, Erythrema infectiosum) can be found all over the world, especially in spring, local epidemics, preferred in kindergarten, schools, families and in hospital areas. The infection can induce for adults acral erythrema and arthritis. Parvovirus multiplies in erythroblasts and trigger in this way a temporary anemia. The infection may lead for immunocompromised people to complications and also death.

Available Tests for Parvovirus

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

Parvovirus B19 IgG-/IgM-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)

Echovirus

ECHO-virus causes in the beginning mainly asymptomatic infections, where neutralizing antibodies are formed.

The virus reproduces itself in the intestinal tract and may get subsequently through the lymphatic system into the blood circulation and may lead to cyclic infections with viremia as well as to a spread to the target organs. ECHO-virus shows a wide spectrum of diseases and may attack the following organs: digestive tract, meninges, CNS, myocardium, pericardium, striated muscle, respiratory tract and skin. Most ECHO-viruses are associated with infections of the CNS, from which the aseptic meningitis should be mentioned.

Available Tests for Echovirus

IFA, ELISA, Immunoblot

Echovirus IgG-/IgM-antibodies
(1x Serum/SST tube)