About Lyme Borreliosis

Lyme disease was first named in the village Lyme, Connecticut, USA in 1975. The spirochete agent of Lyme disease was named Borrelia burgdorferi. This spirochete bacteria is carried by several tick vectors, primarily the deer tick Ixodes dammini (USA) and Ixodes ricinus (Europe). Lyme disease is transmitted to humans through a tick bite and in fewer cases through horse-fly bites.
Pictures: Cysts © and by permission from Judith Miklossy PhD, Lausanne, Switzerland

It is an inflammatory disease, which involves multiple body systems and causes symptoms that mimic other diseases. Beginning with a bull’s eye rash (around 50% of all infections), it progresses to flu-like symptoms, and can lead to arthritis or many other symptoms. If left untreated, Lyme disease can progress to symptoms as serious as encephalitis, cardiomegaly, and inflammation of the pericardium and sensory nerves.

Available Tests for Lyme Borreliosis

EliSpot

Borrelia burgdorferi Elispot:
Borrelia b. fully antigen + Borrelia b. peptide mix + LFA-1
(CPDA tube)

EliSpot

Borrelia miyamotoi Elispot
(CPDA tube)

Antibodies

ELISA and/or immunoblot:
Borrelia burgdorferi-IgM and Borrelia burgdorferi-IgG antibodies by
(Serum tube)

NK-cells CD

CD57-Natural Killer-cells
(Heparin + EDTA tube)

PCR

Borrelia burgdorferi-DNA-PCR in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, tissue
(2 x EDTA tube or spinal fluid and tissue biopsies)

Bacteria:

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B.b.s.l.) with the following subspecies:

  • USA: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (B.b.s.s.), Borrelia andersonii, Borrelia americanum, B. carolinensis, B. bissettii, B. myamotoi
  • Europe: Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. bavariensis
  • Asia: Borrelia japonica, B. rutdi, B. tanukii, B. sinica, B. yangtze

Vector / Transmission:

Ixodes ricinus (Europe), Ixodes scapularis (USA, deer tick), Ixodes pacificus (USA)

There are 3 stages of an infection:

  1. Bull’s eye rash, summer-flu,
  2. Recent infection of the organ system (peripheral nerve system, meningitis, encephalitis, joints, heart, eyes),
  3. Chronic infection of the organ system (peripheral nerve system, central nerve system, joints, muscles, heart, eyes, ears, skin

Symptoms (according “Symptoms and Associated Medical Conditions on the Sixteen-Point MSIDS Map” by Dr. Richard Horowitz, Hyde Park, New York, USA):

Fatique, tiredness, unexplained fevers, sweats, chills or flushing, unexplained weight change, either loss or gain, unexplained hair loss, swollen glands, sore throat, testicular pain (men), pelvic pain (women), unexplained menstrual irregularity, unexplained milk production, breast pain, irritable bladder or bladder dysfunction, sexual dysfunction or loss of libido, upset stomach, change in bowel function (constipation or diarrhea), chest pain or rib soreness, shortness of breath, cough, heart palpitations, pulse skips, heart block, any history of a heart murmur or valve prolapse, joint pain or swelling, stiffness of joints, neck or back, muscle pain or cramps, twitching of the face or other muscles, headaches, neck cracks, neck stiffness, tingling numbness, burning or stabbing sensations, facial paralysis (Bell´s palsy), double, blurry or floaters of the eyes/vision, buzzing, ringing of the ears/hearing, ear pain, increased motion sickness, vertigo, light-headedness, wooziness, poor balance, difficulty walking, tremor, confusion, difficulty thinking, difficulty with concentration or reading, forgetfulness, poor short-term memory, desorientation: getting lost, going to wrong places, difficulty with speech or writing, mood swings, irritability, depression, disturbed sleep: too much or too little sleep or early awakening, disturbed sleep: too much or too little sleep or early awakening (continued), exaggerated symptoms or worse hangover from alcohol.

Associations:

e.g. Morbus Alzheimer, Multiple Sclerosis, ALS, Depression, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Autism, Parkinsonism, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Autoimmune disorders (e.g. Hashimoto Thyroiditis)

Risk factors:

outdoor activities (professional and hobbies), tick-bites, insect bites, horse-fly bites